2S1 Gvozdika 122 mm SpH [REVIEW + SPECS] | Defence Database
2S1 Gvozdika 122 mm self-propelled howitzer
Posted by: Andrei Dcs

2S1 Gvozdika is a Soviet 122 mm tracked self-propelled howitzer. Gvozdika consists of a 122 mm 2A18 howitzer mounted on a MT-LBu amphibious tracked armoured personnel carrier.

2S1 is the GRAU designation while Gvozdika translates in English as Carnation.

The 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled artillery was developed in the Soviet Union and entered service with the Soviet Red Army in 1972.

Author: HawkeyeSlovak
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2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzer was designed between 1956 and 1961 and manufactured in nowadays Ukraine at the Kharkiv Tractor Plant between 1971 and 1991 in more than 10,000 units.

2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled gun has a mass of 16 tonnes (35,273 lbs) and measures 7.26 m (23 ft 10 in) in length, 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) in width, and 2.73 m (8 ft 11 in) in height.

Gvozdika self-propelled artillery system has a crew of four members.

2S1 Gvozdika uses a 122 mm (4.8 in) 2A18 howitzer that has an elevation between -3 to +70 degrees, and a traverse of 360 degrees.

Gvozdika has a sustained rate of fire of 1-2 rounds per minute and a maximum rate of fire of 5 rounds per minute.

With a muzzle velocity of 680 m/s (2,200 ft/s), Gvozdika has a conventional fire range of 15.3 km (9.5 mi) and a maximum fire range of 21.9 km (13.6 mi).

The 122 mm 2A18 howitzer is mounted on a MT-LBu armoured personnel carrier with an armor of 20 mm (.78 in).

The 2S1 Gvozdika artillery system is powered by a 300 hp (220 kW) YaMZ-238N diesel engine.

With a torsion bar suspension, the Gvozdika tracked howitzer has an operational range of 500 km (310 mi).

It can reach a maximum speed on road of 60 km/h (37 mph) while off-road can reach 30 km/h (18 mph).

The 2S1 Gvozdika SpH is fully amphibious and when in water it is propelled by its tracks to a maximum speed of 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph).

2S1 Gvozdika operational history:

Being a widely exported self-propelled howitzer, the 2S1 Gvozdika has been extensively used in many wars including:

- Soviet-Afghan War (December 24, 1979 – February 15, 1989);
- Iran–Iraq War (22 September 1980 – 20 August 1988);
- Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991);
- War in Abkhazia (1992–1993);
- Yugoslav Wars;
- Kosovo War;
- First Chechen War;
- Second Chechen War;
- Iraq War;
- 2008 South Ossetia War;
- Russo-Georgian War;
- First Libyan Civil War;
- Second Libyan Civil War;
- Syrian Civil War;
- War in Donbass;
- 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

2S1 Gvozdika current operators / users:

- Algeria - the Algerian Army operates a total of 145 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers;

- Angola - the Angolan Army has twelve (12) 2S1 Gvozdika 122 mm self-propelled guns acquired in 2000 from the Czech Republic.

- Armenia - the Armenian Army operates 20 2S1 Gvozdika units.

- Azerbaijan – the Azerbaijani Army has in its inventoryu 81 2S1 pieces and an unknown number of the UR-77 variant.

- Bosnia and Herzegovina - the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina has five (5) 2S1 Gvozdikas.

- Belarus - Belarusian Army has a total of 246 2S1 Gvozdika systems.

- Bulgaria - The Bulgarian Army has in its inventory a total of 506 2S1 Gvozdika systems, locally produced as Karamfil.

In 2013 the Bulgarian Land Forced received 11 Gvozdika SpHs from Poland.

- Cuba - the Cuban Revolutionary Army has a total of 60 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled guns.

- Croatia - the Croatian Army has 9 2S1 Gvozdika systems. These will be kept into operational service toghether with the 15 newly ordered Panzerhaubitze 2000 self-propelled howitzers from the German Army stock.

- Eritrea - the Eritrean Army has a total of 20 2S1 Gvozdika systems acquired in 2005 from Bulgaria.

- Ethiopia - the Ethiopian Army has about ten (10) Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers.

- Finland - the Finnish Army has a total of 72 S21 Gvozdika systems locally designates 122 PsH 74.

In 2013 the Finnish Army received three (3) Gvozdika systems from Poland.

- Georgia - the Georgian Army operates a total of 48 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers.

- India - the Indian Army has 110 Gvozdika systems which are planned to be replaced by more modern self-propelled howitzers.

- Iran - the Iranian Army has 60 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled guns.

- Iraq - the Iraqi army is a known operator of the Gvozdika systems which are still kept in service along the newly 44 M109 155 mm self-propelled howitzers.

- Kazakhstan - the Army of Kazakhstan has 10 2S1 Gvozdika 122 mm self-propelled howitzers.

- Libya - the Libyan Army was a known operator of the 2S1 Gvozdika.

- Moldova - the Moldovan Ground Forces was a known operator of the 2S1 Gvozdika.

- Poland - the Polish Land Forces have a total of 362 Gvozdika systems locally designated as 2S1 Goździk.

Of the total of 362 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers, 198 are in active service, while the rest are kept in storage.

In the Polish Army, the 2S1 Gvozdika will be replaced by the modern AHS Krab 155 mm self-propelled howitzers.

- Russia - Russian Ground Forces are the largest operator of the 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers after inheriting the majority of the ex-Soviet units.

Curently, 622 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers are in service with the Russian Army.

- Serbia - the Serbian Army operates a total of 72 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers.

- Slovakia - the Slovak Army has 49 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers.

- Syria - in 2011, the Syrian Army had about 360 to 400 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled guns.

- Turkmenistan - the Turkmen Ground Forces operates 40 2S1 Gvozdikas.

- Ukraine - Today, the Ukrainian Ground Forces have in their inventory about 340 2S1 Gvozdik self-propelled howitzers.

Ukraine inherited from the Soviet Union a total of 640 Gvozdika artillery systems, all of them being produced in Ukraine at the Kharkiv Tractor Plant.

- Uruguay – National Army of Uruguay / Uruguayan Army operates six (6) 2S1 Gvozdika SpHs delivered in 1998 from the Czech Army stocks.

- Uzbekistan - the Uzbek Ground Forces have 18 2S1 Gvozdikas.

- Vietnam - the Vietnam People's Ground Forces operates an unknown number of Gvozdika units.

- Yemen - the Yemeni Army is also an operator of Gvozdika artillery systems

Former operators / users of 2S1 Gvozdika:

- Czech Republic – The Army of the Czech Republic operated the 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers after the Czech Republic inherited them from 1 January 1993.

The Czech 2S1 122 mm artillery systems were phased out in the early 2000s.

- Czechoslovakia - The Czechoslovak Army operated the Soviet 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzer.

The artillery system was passed on to the Czech Republic after the peaceful dissolution of the Czechoslovak state on 1 January 1993.

- East Germany - The East German Army was an operator of the Gvozdika. The 2S1 self-propelled howitzers were phased out in 1990 after the German reunification.

- Hungary - the Hungarian Ground Forces operated a total of 144 Gvozdika self-propelled artillery systems which were phased out in 2004.

- Romania - the Romanian Army was an operator of the 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers, which have been withdrawn from active service in 2005 when 48 units were transferred into the reserve.

- Slovenia - Slovenia, a former member state of Yugoslavia, was an operator of the 2S1 Gvozdika. Currently, eight (8) 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers are in reserve.

- Soviet Union - the Soviet Union's Red Army was the largest operator of 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers.

After the dissolution of the USSR, like other former Soviet weapons, the Gvozdika self-propelled artillery units were passed on to the successor states.

- Yugoslavia - Like in the case of the Soviet Union, after the dissolution of Yugoslavia, ex-Yugoslav Army's 2S1 Gvozdika units were passed on to the successor states.

2S1 Gvozdika 122 mm SpH - General Data and Specifications: